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Virginia Woolf's Bloomsbury: v. Mixed media product Engelska, Spara som favorit. Featuring essays by eminent and emerging Woolf scholars from around the world, this two-volume set offers fascinating and original insights into both the aesthetics and politics of Virginia Woolf and the Bloomsbury Group. Virginia Woolf's Bloomsbury, Volume 1 Gina Potts, Lisa Shahriari This volume features new essays by eminent and emerging Woolf scholars, focusing on the aesthetics and influences of Virginia Woolf's work.
Leonard Woolf relates how during the 30 years they were married they consulted many doctors in the Harley Street area, and although they were given a diagnosis of neurasthenia , he felt they had little understanding of the causes or nature. The solution was simple, as long as she lived a quiet life without any physical or mental exertion, she was well. On the other hand, any mental, emotional or physical strain resulted in a reappearance of her symptoms. These began with a headache, followed by insomnia and thoughts that started to race.
Her remedy was simple, to retire to bed in a darkened room, eat, and drink plenty of milk, following which the symptoms slowly subsided. Modern scholars, including her nephew and biographer, Quentin Bell ,  have suggested her breakdowns and subsequent recurring depressive periods were also influenced by the sexual abuse to which she and her sister Vanessa were subjected by their half-brothers George and Gerald Duckworth which Woolf recalls in her autobiographical essays A Sketch of the Past and 22 Hyde Park Gate see Sexual abuse. Biographers point out that when Stella died in , there was no counterbalance to control George's predation, and his night time prowling.
Virginia describes him as her first lover, "The old ladies of Kensington and Belgravia never knew that George Duckworth was not only father and mother, brother and sister to those poor Stephen girls; he was their lover also". It is likely that other factors also played a part. It has been suggested that these include genetic predisposition , for both trauma and family history have been implicated in bipolar disorder. Many of Virginia's symptoms, including persistent headache, insomnia , irritability , and anxiety resemble those of her father.
These inspirations emerged from what Woolf referred to as her lava of madness, describing her time at Burley    in a letter to Ethel Smythe :. As an experience, madness is terrific I can assure you, and not to be sniffed at; and in its lava I still find most of the things I write about. It shoots out of one everything shaped, final, not in mere driblets, as sanity does. And the six months—not three—that I lay in bed taught me a good deal about what is called oneself. Thomas Caramagno  and others,  in discussing her illness, warn against the "neurotic-genius" way of looking at mental illness, which rationalises the theory that creativity is somehow born of mental illness.
After completing the manuscript of her last novel posthumously published , Between the Acts ,  Woolf fell into a depression similar to that which she had earlier experienced. The onset of World War II , the destruction of her London home during the Blitz , and the cool reception given to her biography  of her late friend Roger Fry all worsened her condition until she was unable to work.
She held fast to her pacifism and criticized her husband for wearing what she considered to be the silly uniform of the Home Guard. After World War II began, Woolf's diary indicates that she was obsessed with death, which figured more and more as her mood darkened. In her suicide note , addressed to her husband, she wrote:.
I feel certain that I am going mad again. I feel we can't go through another of those terrible times. And I shan't recover this time. I begin to hear voices, and I can't concentrate. So I am doing what seems the best thing to do. You have given me the greatest possible happiness. You have been in every way all that anyone could be. I don't think two people could have been happier till this terrible disease came. I can't fight it any longer. I know that I am spoiling your life, that without me you could work. And you will I know. You see I can't even write this properly. I can't read.
What I want to say is I owe all the happiness of my life to you. You have been entirely patient with me and incredibly good. I want to say that—everybody knows it. If anybody could have saved me it would have been you. Everything has gone from me but the certainty of your goodness. I can't go on spoiling your life any longer.
I don't think two people could have been happier than we have been. Woolf is considered to be one of the most important twentieth century novelists. The growth of feminist criticism in the s helped re-establish her reputation. Virginia submitted her first article in , to a competition in Tit-Bits.
Although it was rejected, this shipboard romance by the 8-year old would presage her first novel 25 years later, as would contributions to the Hyde Park News , such as the model letter "to show young people the right way to express what is in their hearts", a subtle commentary on her mother's legendary matchmaking. Invited to submit a 1,page article, Virginia sent Lyttelton a review of W.
Woolf would go on to publish novels and essays as a public intellectual to both critical and popular acclaim. Much of her work was self-published through the Hogarth Press. Her novels are highly experimental: a narrative, frequently uneventful and commonplace, is refracted—and sometimes almost dissolved—in the characters' receptive consciousness. Intense lyricism and stylistic virtuosity fuse to create a world overabundant with auditory and visual impressions". Her first novel, The Voyage Out ,  was published in at the age of 33, by her half-brother's imprint, Gerald Duckworth and Company Ltd.
This novel was originally titled Melymbrosia , but Woolf repeatedly changed the draft. An earlier version of The Voyage Out has been reconstructed by Woolf scholar Louise DeSalvo and is now available to the public under the intended title. DeSalvo argues that many of the changes Woolf made in the text were in response to changes in her own life.
In the novel are hints of themes that would emerge in later work, including the gap between preceding thought and the spoken word that follows, and the lack of concordance between expression and underlying intention, together with how these reveal to us aspects of the nature of love. The plot centres on the Ramsay family's anticipation of and reflection upon a visit to a lighthouse and the connected familial tensions. One of the primary themes of the novel is the struggle in the creative process that beset painter Lily Briscoe while she struggles to paint in the midst of the family drama.
The novel is also a meditation upon the lives of a nation's inhabitants in the midst of war, and of the people left behind. Orlando: A Biography  is one of Virginia Woolf's lightest novels. A parodic biography of a young nobleman who lives for three centuries without ageing much past thirty but who does abruptly turn into a woman , the book is in part a portrait of Woolf's lover Vita Sackville-West.
In Orlando , the techniques of historical biographers are being ridiculed; the character of a pompous biographer is being assumed in order for it to be mocked. Flush: A Biography  is a part-fiction, part-biography of the cocker spaniel owned by Victorian poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning. The book is written from the dog's point of view. In the play, Flush is on stage for much of the action. The play was produced for the first time in by the actress Katharine Cornell.
Moore , among others towards doctrinaire rationalism, it is not a simple recapitulation of the coterie's ideals.
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Woolf's fiction has been studied for its insight into many themes including war, shell shock , witchcraft , and the role of social class in contemporary modern British society. Dalloway ,  Woolf addresses the moral dilemma of war and its effects   and provides an authentic voice for soldiers returning from World War I , suffering from shell shock, in the person of Septimus Smith.
In her essay Am I a Snob? She concluded she was, and subsequent critics and supporters have tried to deal with the dilemma of being both elite and a social critic. Despite the considerable conceptual difficulties, given Woolf's idiosyncratic use of language,  her works have been translated into over 50 languages. Virginia Woolf researched the life of her great-aunt, the photographer Julia Margaret Cameron , publishing her findings in an essay titled Pattledom ,  and later in her introduction to her edition of Cameron's photographs.
Finally it was performed on 18 January at the studio of her sister, Vanessa Bell on Fitzroy Street in Freshwater is a short three act comedy satirizing the Victorian era , that was only performed once in Woolf's lifetime. Both Cameron and Woolf fought against the class and gender dynamics of Victorianism  and the play shows links to both To the Lighthouse and A Room of One's Own that would follow.
Over her relatively short life, Virginia Woolf wrote a body of autobiographical work and more than five hundred essays and reviews ,  some of which, like A Room of One's Own were of book length. Not all were published in her lifetime. Shortly after her death, Leonard Woolf produced an edited edition of unpublished essays titled The Moment and other Essays ,  published by the Hogarth Press in Many of these were originally lectures that she gave,  and several more volumes of essays followed, such as The Captain's death bed: and other essays Amongst Woolf's non-fiction works, one of the best known is A Room of One's Own ,  a book-length essay.
Considered a key work of feminist literary criticism, it was written following two lectures she delivered on "Women and Fiction" at Cambridge University the previous year. In it, she examines the historical disempowerment women have faced in many spheres, including social, educational and financial. One of her most famous dicta is contained within the book "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction". Much of her argument "to show you how I arrived at this opinion about the room and the money" is developed through the "unsolved problems" of women and fiction writing to arrive at her conclusion, although she claimed that was only "an opinion upon one minor point".
She contrasted these women who accepted a deferential status, to Jane Austen who wrote entirely as a woman.
Virginia Woolf’s Bloomsbury, Volume 1: Aesthetic Theory and Literary Practice
A major influence on Woolf from onward was Russian literature as Woolf adopted many of its aesthetic conventions. Another influence on Woolf was the American writer Henry David Thoreau , with Woolf writing in a essay that her aim as a writer was to follow Thoreau by capturing "the moment, to burn always with this hard, gem-like flame" while praising Thoreau for his statement "The millions are awake enough for physical labor, but only one in hundreds of millions is awake enough to a poetic or divine life. To be awake is to be alive". In her lifetime, Woolf was outspoken on many topics that were considered controversial, some of which are now considered progressive, others regressive.
On the other hand, she has been criticised for views on class and race in her private writings and published works. Like many of her contemporaries, some of her writing is now considered offensive. As a result, she is considered polarising, a revolutionary feminist and socialist hero or a purveyor of hate speech. Works such as A Room of One's Own  and Three Guineas  are frequently taught as icons of feminist literature in courses that would be very critical of some of her views expressed elsewhere.
Virginia Woolf was born into an agnostic family, and in a letter to Ethel Smyth , Woolf gives a scathing denunciation of Christianity, seeing it as self-righteous "egotism" and stating "my Jew has more religion in one toenail—more human love, in one hair. Hermione Lee cites a number of extracts from Woolf's writings that many, including Lee, would consider offensive, and these criticisms can be traced back as far as those of Wyndham Lewis and Q.
Leavis in the s and s. Some authors, particularly postcolonial feminists dismiss her and modernist authors in general as privileged, elitist , classist , racist, and antisemitic. Woolf's tendentious expressions, including prejudicial feelings against disabled people have often been the topic of academic criticism: .
The first quotation is from a diary entry of September and runs "[t]he fact is the lower classes are detestable. Though accused of anti-semitism ,  the treatment of Judaism and Jews by Woolf is complex and far from straightforward. For instance, she described some of the Jewish characters in her work in terms that suggested they were physically repulsive or dirty. On the other hand, she could criticise her own views: "How I hated marrying a Jew — how I hated their nasal voices and their oriental jewelry, and their noses and their wattles — what a snob I was: for they have immense vitality, and I think I like that quality best of all" Letter to Ethel Smythe Leonard, "a penniless Jew from Putney", lacked the material status of the Stephens and their circle.
While travelling on a cruise to Portugal, she protested at finding "a great many Portuguese Jews on board, and other repulsive objects, but we keep clear of them". Yet Woolf and her husband Leonard came to despise and fear the s fascism and antisemitism. Her book Three Guineas  was an indictment of fascism and what Woolf described as a recurring propensity among patriarchal societies to enforce repressive societal mores by violence.
Though at least one biography of Virginia Woolf appeared in her lifetime, the first authoritative study of her life was published in by her nephew Quentin Bell. Hermione Lee 's biography Virginia Woolf  provides a thorough and authoritative examination of Woolf's life and work, which she discussed in an interview in Julia Briggs's Virginia Woolf: An Inner Life focuses on Woolf's writing, including her novels and her commentary on the creative process, to illuminate her life. The sociologist Pierre Bourdieu also uses Woolf's literature to understand and analyse gender domination.
The intense scrutiny of Virginia Woolf's literary output see Bibliography has inevitably led to speculation as to her mother's influence, including psychoanalytic studies of mother and daughter. Her memories of her mother are memories of an obsession,   starting with her first major breakdown on her mother's death in , the loss having a profound lifelong effect. Woolf described her mother as an "invisible presence" in her life, and Ellen Rosenman argues that the mother-daughter relationship is a constant in Woolf's writing.
To Woolf, "Saint Julia" was both a martyr whose perfectionism was intimidating and a source of deprivation, by her absences real and virtual and premature death. A number of Virginia Woolf's works have been adapted for the screen, and her play Freshwater  is the basis for a chamber opera , Freshwater , by Andy Vores. The final segment of the Anthology film London Unplugged is adapted from her short story Kew Gardens. Septimus and Clarissa , a stage adaptation of Mrs. Dalloway was created and produced by the New York-based ensemble Ripe Time www.
Calloway Award nomination for outstanding direction Rachel Dickstein. Virginia Woolf is known for her contributions to twentieth-century literature and her essays, as well as the influence she has had on literary, particularly feminist criticism. In addition trusts such as the Asham Trust have been set up to encourage writers, in her honour. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the British modernist author.
For the American children's author, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. For the British rock band, see Virginia Wolf. For other people, see Woolf surname. English modernist writer known for use of stream of consciousness. Leonard Woolf m. Woolf's voice. BBC radio broadcast 29 April . See also: Julia Stephen. Leslie Stephen Julia Stephen Childhood homes. Talland House, St. Ives , c. It had It had, running down the hill, little lawns, surrounded by thick escallonia bushes You entered Talland House by a large wooden gate From the Lookout place one had Activities at Talland.
Her brother's keeper: Virginia and Adrian Stephen playing cricket Virginia and Vanessa . Virginia 3rd from left with her mother and the Stephen children at their lessons, Talland House c.
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The Stephens and their Bloomsbury Friends. Main article: Dreadnought hoax. Main article: Hogarth Press. Woolf's in Richmond. Main article: Memoir Club. Mary MacCarthy and son Forster David Garnett c. Life in Sussex. Monk's House , Rodmell. Main article: The Voyage Out. Main article: Mrs Dalloway. Main article: To the Lighthouse. Main article: Orlando: A Biography.
Main article: The Waves. Main article: Flush: A Biography. Main article: Between the Acts. Main article: Freshwater play. Main article: A Room of One's Own. Main article: Bibliography of Virginia Woolf. Ives Nursing Association had hired "a trained nurse It was convinced that girls must be changed into married women. It had no doubts, no mercy; no understanding of any other wish; of any other gift. In women were allowed to prepare for degrees. One walks, eats, sees things, deals with what has to be done; the broken vacuum cleaner; However she and Vanessa decorated the interior, "staining the floors the colours of the Atlantic in a storm" Letters, no.
In particular, 18 pages of new material was inserted between pp. Page of that edition resumes as page in the second edition, so that page references to the first edition in the literature, after p. This added 22 new pages, and changed the pagination for the Memoir Club essays that followed by an extra 22 pages.
Pagination also varies between printings of the 2nd. I always find that the novel I'm finishing, even if it's turned out fairly well, is not the novel I had in my mind. But I did learn something that was to be very useful to me in my future writing—the technique of the interior monologue. I later found this in Virginia Woolf, and I like the way she uses it better than Joyce. I read a lot of Faulkner then. You might not know this, but in the '50s, American literature was new. It was renegade. English literature was English. So there were these avant-garde professors making American literature a big deal.
That tickles me now. Florence Henrietta Fisher — who married Frederic William Maitland — in , who wrote the biography of Leslie Stephen  and 2. Virginia Woolf: Bloomsbury and Beyond. Haus Publishing. Same person': how Woolf's Orlando became a trans triumph". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 November New York. Retrieved 14 January Quirky Travel Guy. Retrieved 28 July We The People. Retrieved 12 August Books and theses [ edit ] Batchelor, John, ed. The Art of Literary Biography. Clarendon Press. Beauvoir, Simone de . Random House.
UNC Press Books. Brooker, Peter Palgrave Macmillan. Burstyn, Joan N. Victorian Education and the Ideal of Womanhood. Eagle, Dorothy S. Oxford University Press. Ender, Evelyne Architexts of Memory: Literature, Science, and Autobiography. University of Michigan Press. Hirsch, Marianne Indiana University Press. Jaillant, Lise 17 April Edinburgh University Press.
Mandler, Peter ; Pedersen, Susan , eds. Oliver, Vanessa University of Toronto Press. Olson, Liesl Modernism and the Ordinary. Parkes, Adam Parmar, Priya Vanessa and Her Sister. Doubleday Canada. Prince, Tracy J. Prins, Yopie Ladies' Greek: Victorian Translations of Tragedy. Princeton University Press.
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Ramazanoglu, Caroline; Holland, Janet Feminist Methodology: Challenges and Choices. SAGE Publications. Richardson, Dorothy . Ross, Stephen; Thomson, Tara eds. Pointed Roofs. Broadview Press. Rosner, Victoria Modernism and the Architecture of Private Life. Columbia University Press. Sellers, Susan Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Sheppard, FHW, ed. Survey of London. South Kensington Museums Area. Snodgrass, Mary Ellen , ed. Encyclopedia of Feminist Literature 2nd ed. Infobase Learning. Stephen, Julia D. Steele, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Dianne F eds. Syracuse University Press.
Broughton, Panthea Reid English Literature in Transition, Review. Stuart, Christopher; Todd, Stephanie, eds. New Essays on Life Writing and the Body. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Zimring, Rishona Biography: Virginia Woolf [ edit ] Acheson, James, ed. Virginia Woolf. Bell, Quentin Virginia Woolf: A Biography. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
I: Virginia Stephen to London: Hogarth Press. II: Virginia Woolf to Bishop, Edward A Virginia Woolf Chronology. Palgrave Macmillan UK. Bond, Alma Halbert Who Killed Virginia Woolf? Insight Books Human Sciences. Poole, Roger Boynton, Victoria; Malin, Jo, eds. Greenwood Press. Brackenbury, Rosalind University of Iowa Press. Briggs, Julia Virginia Woolf: An Inner Life. Cafiero, Giuseppe Virginia Woolf: The Ambiguity of Feeling. AuthorHouse UK. Curtis, Vanessa Virginia Woolf's Women. University of Wisconsin Press. Curtis, Anthony Czarnecki, Kristin; Rohman, Carrie, eds. Virginia Woolf and the Natural World.
Liverpool University Press. Dalsimer, Katherine . Virginia Woolf: Becoming a Writer. Yale University Press. Dally, Peter John Robson Books. DeSalvo, Louise A. Women's Press. Beattie, L.
Italian Virginia Woolf Society
Elisabeth 23 July The New York Times Review. Dunn, Jane Virginia Woolf: A Portrait. Froula, Christine Goldman, Jane The Cambridge Introduction to Virginia Woolf. Cambridge University Press. Gordon, Lyndall Virginia Woolf: A Writer's Life. Hall, Sarah M. Peter Owen. Bloomsbury Academic. Harris, Alexandra Hadley, Tessa 21 October The Guardian Review.
Holtby, Winifred . Virginia Woolf: a critical memoir. London: Bloomsbury. Humm, Maggie Rutgers University Press. King, James New York: Norton. Leaska, Mitchell A. Lee, Hermione . Vintage Books. Retrieved 12 March Levenback, Karen L. Virginia Woolf and the Great War. Licence, Amy Amberley Publishing Limited. Nadel, Ira Reaktion Books. Nicolson, Nigel Penguin Publishing Group. Sweeney, Aoibheann 17 December Virginia Woolf and the Bloomsbury Group in Twickenham.
Borough of Twickenham Local History Society. Poole, Roger . The Unknown Virginia Woolf.